For physical and behavioral reasons, fractures are common in kids – and commonly referred to orthopedists. In this straight-talking guide, pediatric orthopedic surgeon Kristin Livingston, MD, describes how to discern the simple from the complex and illustrates with numerous X-ray images, helping primary care providers get more comfortable identifying everyday fractures and avoid unnecessary referrals. Bonus tip: when to be concerned about vitamin D levels.
- Describe the epidemiology of childhood fractures including gender differences, BMI impacts, socioeconomic factors
- Identify unique features of pediatric fractures
- Diagnose common pediatric fracture patterns
- Identify characteristics and patterns which necessitate referral to a pediatric orthopaedic surgeon